International Commission for the Taxonomy of Fungi (ICTF)
International Union of Microbiological Societies (IUMS, Mycology Division)

Welcome to Trichoderma taxonomy!

Accepted Trichoderma names in the year 2015

John Bissett1*, Walter Gams2, Walter Jaklitsch3, and Gary J. Samuels4

Follow this link to see the list of Trichoderma names

Abstract: A list of 256 names of species and two names of varieties in Trichoderma with name or names against which they are to be protected, following the ICN (Melbourne Code, Art. 14.13), is presented for consideration by the General Committee established by the Congress, which then will refer them to the Nomenclature Committee for Fungi (NCF). This list includes 252 species, one variety and one form. Two new names are proposed: T. neocrassum Samuel (syn. Hypocrea crassa P. Chaverri & Samuels), T. patellotropicum Samuels (syn. Hypocrea patella f. tropica Yoshim. Doi). The following new combinations in Trichoderma are proposed: T. brevipes (Mont.) Samuels, T. cerebriforme (Berk.) Samuels, T. latizonatum (Peck) Samuels, and T. poronioideum (A. Möller) Samuels.

The following species are lectotypified: T. americanum (Canham) Jaklitsch & Voglmayr, Gliocladium flavofuscum J.H. Miller, Giddens & A.A. Foster, T. inhamatum Veerkamp & W. Gams, T. konilangbra Samuels, O. Petrini & C.P. Kubicek, T. koningii Oudem., T. pezizoides (Berk. & Broome) Jaklitsch & Voglmayr, T. sulphureum (Schwein.) Jaklitsch & Voglmayr and T. virens (J.H. Miller, Giddens & A.A. Foster) Arx.

Epitypes are proposed for the following species: T. albocorneum (Yoshim. Doi) Jaklitsch & Voglmayr, T. albofulvum (Berk. & Broome) Jaklitsch & Voglmayr, T. atrogelatinosum (Dingley) Jaklitsch & Voglmayr, T. corneum (Pat.) Jaklitsch & Voglmayr, T. cornu-damae(Pat.) Z.X. Zhu & W.Y. Zhuang, T. flaviconidium (P. Chaverri, Druzhinina & Samuels) Jaklitsch & Voglmayr, T. hamatum (Bonord.) Bain., T. hunua (Dingley) Jaklitsch & Voglmayr, T. patella (Cooke & Peck) Jaklitsch & Voglmayr, Hypocrea patella f. tropica Yoshim. Doi, T. polysporum (Link)Rifai, T. poronioideum (A. Möller) Samuels T. semiorbis (Berk.) Jaklitsch & Voglmayr, T. sulphureum (Schwein.) Jaklitsch & Voglmayr, and T. tropicosinense (P.G. Liu) P.G. Liu, Z.X. Zhu & W.Y. Zhuang.

See the list of names


Which generic name you prefer: Trichoderma or Hypocrea?

Dear ISTH members,

among several changes a drastic change of the ICBN (International Code of Botanical Nomenclature) was adopted at the IBC in Melbourne in July 2011 for fungi: from 1 January 2013 only one official name will be allowed for each pleomorphic fungus. The ISTH as a subcommission of the International Commission on the Taxonomy of Fungi (ICTF), is expected to decide on the names in Hypocrea and Trichoderma.

The question of which name to use generally follows the principle of priority of publication, BUT

  • a new passage in Art. 57.2 says that an anamorph-typified name (e.g. Trichoderma) that has priority must not be taken up until retention of the teleomorph-typified name (e.g. Hypocrea) has been considered by the General Committee and rejected.
  • mass conservation: A new Art. 14.n says that lists of preferred names may be submitted to the General Committee, which will refer them to the Nomenclature Committee for Fungi and committees of experts for examination. After approval, these names will then become permanent, i.e. treated as conserved.


T/H Vote results:

You can find comments, left by voters here

Trichoderma / hypocrea barcode Welcome to, the official website of the International Subcommission on Trichoderma and Hypocrea Taxonomy!

ISTH is a Subcommission of the International Commission for the Taxonomy of Fungi (ICTF), a Commission of the Mycology Division of the International Union of Microbiological Societies (IUMS Mycology Division).

This website is designed as an open platform to gather the most recent expert knowledge on Hypocrea/Trichoderma taxonomy and evolution. We also aim to present a collection of easy tools for quick molecular identification of  Hypocrea/Trichoderma based on DNA BarCode.

direct link to PCR protocols for amplification of Trichoderma phylogenetic markers.


Steps suggested for researchers who are studying Hypocrea/Trichoderma biodiversity or performing a global screening for industrially important Trichoderma strains.
1) Prepare monospore (single spore) cultures for every strain to be identified. 

This step is of crucial importance since several Trichoderma spp. may occupy one ecological niche. Moreover, it is well known that due to homoplasy of morphological characters it is often impossible to discriminate species.

2) Extract genomic DNA from young cultures preferably before sporulation begins

We suggest to cultivate Trichoderma strains on agar plates covered by cellophane no longer than 2 - 4 days in order to control possible cross contamination by other Trichoderma cultures.

It is also advisable to check DNA quality on agarose gels. If possible, measure DNA concentration

3) make PCR amplification and sequencing of the following marker(s):

Click here for more details

TrichOKEY 2: The Molecular Barcode Program

Number of Hypocrea/Trichoderma species: 153
Number of ITS1 and 2 BarCodes: 151 Biodiversity profile
1. Name the query set of sequences Why it is important to give name to the sequence query :
2. Paste ITS1 and 2 sequence(s) in FASTA or text format Formats supported by TrichOKEY :
3. Select mode Display modes of TrichOKEY results : Full Short Fasta
biodiversity | ITS1 and 2 master alignment | disclimer | Help
DNA BARCODE: Trichoderma identification tools


Here we presented TrichOKEY v. 2, a DNA oligonucliotide BarCode program for the identification of multiple sequences of Hypocrea and Trichoderma based on diagnostic hallmarks detected within ITS1 and 2 (internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 of the rRNA gene cluster).

The current version contains newly integrated modules to increase the reliability of the result, which are powered by simultaneous identification of multiple sequences, complementary similarity search tool and has an advanced graphic interface.

Read more in Druzhinina et al., 2005


TrichoBLAST is a publicly available database supported by sequence diagnosis and the similarity search tools, which covers all genetically characterized species of the genus and contains almost complete sets of five of the most frequently used phylogenetic markers: ITS 1 and 2; two introns (tef1_int4(large), tef1_int5-short) and one exon tef1_exon6(large) of the gene encoding translation elongation factor 1-alpha; and a portion of the exon between the 5th and 7th eukaryotic conserved amino acid motives of subunit 2 of the RNA polymerase  gene (rpb2_exon).

Latest Species
Trichoderma theobromicola Trichoderma, Pachybasium "A" or Hamatum
Hypocrea crystalligena Hypocreamun, Megalocitrina
Trichoderma pleurotum Pachybasium, Harzianum
Hypocrea viridescens/Trichoderma viridescens Trichoderma, Viride
Hypocrea sp. WJ 2608 Pachybasium, Harzianum
Hypocrea sp. WJ 2701 Pachybasium, Harzianum
Trichoderma sp. MA 3642 Longibrahiatum, Longibrachiatum

Copyright: Irina Druzhinina & Alexey Kopchinskiy 2004 - 2008